ZURICH (AP): Already banished from soccer for eight years, former FIFA leaders Sepp Blatter and Michel Platini are again facing the threat of life bans. FIFA ethics prosecutors said yesterday they will appeal to increase the bans, arguing they are too lenient. “The investigatory chamber intends to appeal against the decision against Mr. Blatter and Mr. Platini at the appeal committee of FIFA,” the prosecution unit said in a statement. The counter-challenge revives the prospect of life bans, which both men revealed had been recommended by investigators before their ethics hearings last month. Blatter and Platini have said they will also appeal the eight-year sanctions handed down by four ethics judges who rejected charges of bribery and corruption. Instead, Blatter and Platini were banned for a range of lesser violations of the FIFA ethics code, including accepting or receiving gifts and conflicts of interest. They deny wrongdoing over Blatter approving a $2 million payment from FIFA to Platini in 2011 as backdated salary without a contract. Platini worked as a presidential adviser to Blatter from 1999-2002, but did not claim the money owed to him for more than eight years, when FIFA was no longer obliged by Swiss law to pay him. The case has ended Platini’s bid to succeed his former mentor as FIFA president in an election on February 26. Clearing his name Blatter wants to clear his name and host the election meeting in Zurich as a farewell to FIFA after more than 40 years. The FIFA appeals committee rarely cuts or annuls sanctions imposed by the governing body’s ethics or disciplinary panels. Blatter and Platini have said they expect their cases will fail at FIFA before they pursue further appeals at the Court of Arbitration for Sport. FIFA’s appeals committee has previously imposed a life ban after judge Joachim Eckert decided on an eight-year sanction. In 2013, then-FIFA executive committee member, Vernon Manilal Fernando, of Sri Lanka, was expelled for bribery after then-prosecutor Michael Garcia appealed. Manilal Fernando was judged to have bribed Asian officials to vote for Mohamed bin Hammam of Qatar in a 2009 election for a FIFA executive committee seat. The loser in that bitterly fought contest, Sheikh Salman bin Ibrahim al Khalifa of Bahrain, is now a candidate for the FIFA presidency. CAS later upheld Manilal Fernando’s life ban.
It is a worldly tradition to usher in the New Year with celebration and promises to do acts of self-improvement effective on the New Year’s Day. Guyana Times spoke to various person in Georgetown just hours before the world welcomed 2020 and below is what they plan to do and achieve for the year.Latoya Freeman Thomas“There is so much but as time progresses and time goes by, God is going to steer me in that path so I’m leaning on him for guidance. For Guyana is 2020, most persons are talking about the oil and I’m excited about it, but I’m hoping that the Government put the money to good use. I’m hoping that they help the citizens and not themselves, because we are all a part of this beautiful country. I know that big things are in store for Guyana and I am proud and happy to see that happen.”Makayla Morris“Honestly, I don’t make New Year’s resolutions, I go with the flow. However, I want to see expansion in terms of our educational system and infrastructure in Guyana.”Jahvon Anton Azore from Lamaha Park“If you are from the truth Ministry, you would know that we don’t have a New Year’s resolution, we start our new year every day. Once there is life, there is new things to plan, there is new things to happen, you shouldn’t really have a new resolution, that’s my belief. Every day should be a new year or a new day for you, so make plans as you go along life.”Delicia Pompey from Albouystown“I just want to learn French, and learn how to play the piano and also I am preparing for CSEC so I will be working on that for the New Year. I also want to see a Guyana, I want to see better educational facilities, better health facilities, because that is a major thing because right now in the hospitals that are not treat well so that is basically what I want”, she said.Bibi Toono“My new year’s resolution is to focus more on my family. Spending time with my two children and my finance, also I want to focus on my job. I want to live peacefully with everyone. I also want to live blessed everyday as the days goes by. I will say again it’s more about family for the New Year”, she said.Shameer Bux“2019 was ok, a bit challenging but alright. I have no new year’s resolution but what I can tell you is that we [him and his wife] will be taking it one day at a time.”
THE GLAMOUR GIRLS FROM LORETO GET READY FOR THE PROM AT THE TASSIEFIFTH year students at Loreto Letterkenny celebrated in style at their annual Prom at the Silver Tassie Hotel last night.More than 200 students and partners were at the event.ALL SUITED AND BOOTED FOR THE LORETO PROMALL GLAMMED UP FOR THE LORETO PROM; LEFT TO RIGHT, EMER DOHERTY, LAUREN BIANCONI, EMMA MCMONAGLE, JADE MULHERN, SAOIRSE DELANEY, ORLA CROSSAN GETTING READY FOR A GREAT NIGHT OUTGLAMOUR GIRLS AT THE PROMGUESTS AT THE LORETO LETTERKENNY PROM AT THE SILVER TASSIEGUESTS AT THE LETTERKENNY LORETO PROM PICTURE SPECIAL – LORETO LETTERKENNY PROM AT THE SILVER TASSIE was last modified: August 23rd, 2012 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:PICTURE SPECIAL – LORETO LETTERKENNY PROM AT THE SILVER TASSIE
A woman who was sexually abused by her Irish dancing teacher has been awarded €400,000 by the High Court today.The woman, who is now 41, had taken a civil action against the man over the abuse, which happened over seven years between 1982 and 1989 when she was between 12 and 19 years old.The man denied all the allegations and his lawyers tried to stop her taking the case because of the delay in bringing proceedings. However, the High Court judge found that she should not be prevented from taking the action.He ruled she had suffered a severe psychological injury as a result of the abuse, which had affected her ability to take the case.The court had heard that she is suffering from severe post traumatic stress disorder.It is believed to be the first time this issue has ever been fought and decided in court.In making the award, the judge said it was difficult to overstate the profound and lasting effects of prolonged sexual abuse on a person whose childhood was blighted by this conduct.Neither the man nor the woman can be named until further submissions are made in court on Friday.The man was charged with 24 counts of indecent assault but two trials ended with the jury being unable to agree a verdict.After the second trial, the State decided not to pursue the prosecution any further.Mr Justice Sean Ryan ruled the woman had established on the balance of probabilities that the man had carried out acts of sexual abuse against her.He said her evidence was coherent, consistent, and credible and her account was detailed and candid. He ruled that the man’s evidence was inconsistent and unconvincing.The judge said the man’s proposition that she had concocted the case to get back at the man for spurning her advances was wholly unconvincing and did not accord with logic or with her behaviour.The court heard that what had led to her taking the action against the teacher was the realisation that other girls might be at risk.Two other former dancing students of the man gave evidence on the woman’s behalf. One said that he would hug and kiss students when they went up to give him money after the class.This made them so uncomfortable that they made an arrangement to take turns so that only one girl would have to go up each week and they would give all the money to her. She also outlined a number of other incidents.The second student described how the man had stopped his car in a lay-by when she was alone with him and had tried to kiss her.She also described another incident in which he put his hands on her and said she changed dancing school after that.IRISH DANCE TEACHER ORDERED TO PAY €400,000 TO SEX ABUSE VICTIM was last modified: July 6th, 2011 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
Eden Hazard will take on Ibrahim Afellay again as Chelsea meet Stoke.Kick-off: 3pm, Saturday 5 March 2016Referee: Mark Clattenburg (Gosforth, Newcastle-upon-Tyne)Match in a nutshell: After an 11-match unbeaten league run under Guus Hiddink, Chelsea have the chance to move up to seventh with a win over Europa League-chasing Stoke.Five key battles: Including Cesc Fabregas v Giannelli Imbula Injuries and suspensionsCHELSEARuled out: John Terry (hamstring), Pedro (hamstring), Kurt Zouma (knee), Radamel Falcao (thigh).Fitness test: Kenedy (groin).STOKE CITYRuled out: Phil Bardsley (calf), Ryan Shawcross (back), Glen Johnson (knee), Marc Wilson (knee), Charlie Adam (calf), Shay Given (knee).Fitness test: Geoff Cameron (ankle). Possible line-upsChelsea: Courtois; Azpilicueta, Cahill, Ivanovic, Kenedy; Matic, Fabregas; Willian, Oscar, Hazard; Costa. Subs from: Begovic, Amelia, Aina, Miazga, Clarke-Salter, Baba, Mikel, Loftus-Cheek, Traore, Pato, Remy.Stoke City: Butland; Cameron, Muniesa, Wollscheid, Pieters; Whelan, Imbula; Shaqiri, Afellay, Arnautovic; Walters.Subs from: Haugaard, Teixeira, Ireland, El Ouriachi, Joselu, Bojan, Odemwingie, Diouf, Crouch. Vital statisticsForm guide – last five league matchesChelsea total: W W W D D (11 points)Home: W D D D D (7 points)Stoke City total: W W W L L (9 points)Away: W L L L W (6 points)Top scorers – all competitionsChelsea: Costa 14; Willian 10; Oscar 8; Pedro 5; Cahill 3, Fabregas 3, Ramires 3, Remy 3, Traore 3; Azpilicueta 2, Hazard 2, Ivanovic 2, Kenedy 2, Zouma 2; Falcao 1, Loftus-Cheek 1, Matic 1, Mikel 1, Terry 1.Stoke City: Arnautovic 10; Walters 7; Bojan 5; Diouf 3, Joselu 3, Shaqiri 3; Afellay 2, Crouch 2; Bardsley 1, Imbula 1.Last five meetings7 November 2015: Stoke City 1 Chelsea 027 October 2015: Stoke City 1 Chelsea 14 April 2015: Chelsea 2 Stoke City 122 December 2014: Stoke City 0 Chelsea 25 April 2014: Chelsea 3 Stoke City 0Chelsea 3 wins, Stoke 1 win, 1 drawFollow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
27 April 2011President Jacob Zuma, speaking during the Freedom Day celebrations in Pretoria on Wednesday, reminded South Africans of how far their country had come since they voted in the country’s first democratic elections 17 years ago, while acknowledging that much work remained to be done to reverse the long legacy of apartheid.Addressing a large crowd gathered on the lawns of the Union Buildings, Zuma said that Freedom Day “marked the liberation of blacks from subjugation and of whites from guilt and fear, leading to the formation of one South African nation, united in its diversity, colourfulness and vibrancy.“We are celebrating a freedom and democracy that were obtained through the blood, sweat, tears, and sacrifices of scores of freedom fighters, ordinary South Africans and freedom loving people in Africa and the world,” Zuma said.“Each Freedom Day, we remember that scores of South Africans laid down their lives so that we could be free.“We must therefore commit ourselves to not allow anyone or any grouping or structure in our society, to trivialise our freedom or to reverse the gains of our hard-won democracy.”‘We’ve done exceptionally well in 17 years’Reminding South Africans of the suffering caused by apartheid laws “that stripped away the dignity of millions of South Africans”, Zuma said the country had done “exceptionally well against all odds in just 17 years” in reversing this legacy.“We have established a solid, sound, stable, functional constitutional democracy” based on a Constitution that “enjoins all of us to heal the divisions of the past and to establish a society based on democratic values, social justice and fundamental human rights.”The Constitution also enshrined socio-economic rights, Zuma said, including the rights to water, sanitation, electricity, roads, medical care, quality education and economic opportunities.“We are pleased with the achievements scored thus far in the provision of these basic services, although much more still needs to be done.“In 1994, only 62% of households had access to clean drinking water – today 93% do. In 1994, only 50% of households had access to decent sanitation – today 77% do. In 1994, only 36% of South Africans had access to electricity – today 84% do.”Service delivery achievementsThe majority of South Africans were now provided with free basic services in water and electricity, Zuma said, while by 2010 close to 15-million people, mostly orphans and vulnerable children, pensioners and people with disabilities, were receiving social grants.At the same time, the government was upgrading informal settlements in municipalities in order to provide security of tenure and access to basic services, and had committed to building 80 000 mixed-income rental housing units in the next five years in order to enable low-income earners to live closer to where they work.To broaden economic empowerment, the government was encouraging various forms of collective ownership of the economy, such as employee shareholding schemes, co-operatives and public ownership. “There is also increased assistance to small and micro enterprises, in both rural and urban areas.”Zuma said the government continued to expand access to education and to declare no-fee schools for children of the poor, while more than eight-million children benefited from school-feeding schemes, and more than 400 000 children had received a R12 to R15 subsidy for attending a government-registered Early Childhood Development Centre.At the higher education level, Zuma said, student loans were now being converted into bursaries for qualifying final-year students, while students in further education and training colleges who qualified for financial aid were now exempted from paying fees.Local government ‘needs fixing’However, much work remained to be done, particularly in improving service delivery at the local level.“Our research has indicated that we have to do a lot more to improve the way local government works,” Zuma said, adding that a number of issues would need to be attended to after the 18 May municipal elections in order to implement the local government turnaround strategy recently adopted by the Cabinet.“We have to provide more effective and direct support to municipalities in distress, in line with the needs of each municipality,” Zuma said. “We have to ensure the appointment of qualified and experienced personnel, the transparency of tender and procurement systems, and also improve the levels of financial management and accountability.”Urging South Africans to come out in numbers to vote in the 18 May elections, Zuma said that all South Africans, “black and white, must continue to work together to deepen the reconciliation and unity of the rainbow nation.“We must work together to create a more prosperous South Africa, which will be the best place to live in on earth, for all of us.“Happy 17th Birthday to a free South Africa!”SAinfo reporterWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? 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South Africa’s mining sector contributes 9% of GDP directly and over 30% in foreign exchange earnings, writes Minister of Mineral Resources Ngoako Ramatlhodi. Now new regulatory reforms are set to boost this contribution even further.A portion of the massive Khumba Iron Ore mine in the Northern Cape. In 2010, the Citibank Group affirmed South Africa as the wealthiest mining jurisdiction, with total mineral reserves estimated at US$2.5-trillion, exclusive of the energy commodities. (Image: Brand South Africa)Minister of Mineral Resources Ngoako RamatlhodiInternational investors continue to see South Africa as a reliable investment destination with foreign direct investment projects in in the country having incrementally grown between 2007 and 2012.At one of the world’s premier business gatherings, the World Economic Forum in Davos from 21to 24 January 2015, Team South Africa will bring to the roughly 2 500 delegates the message that the country is open for business and remains an attractive and reliable investment destination. We’ll be driving the point that South Africa remains a competitive business and investment destination of choice, despite some challenges, which are being resolved.The mining industry continues to make a valuable contribution to the South African economy, most notably in terms of foreign exchange earnings, employment and economic activity. In 2010, the Citibank Group affirmed South Africa as the wealthiest mining jurisdiction, with total mineral reserves estimated at US$2.5-trillion, exclusive of the energy commodities. Further, the available geological information indicates that South Africa remains highly prospective for discovery of more world-class deposits.The mining sector contributes 9% of GDP directly and over 30% in foreign exchange earnings. The sector generates an annual income exceeding R330-billion and accounts for 10% fixed capital formation in the country. Mining also contributes significantly to the fiscus, including an annual contribution averaging some R17-billion in corporate tax and R6-billion in royalties.The future of the industry and its impact on the South African economy and social infrastructure constitutes the agenda of the strategic tripartite structure, known as the Mining Growth, Development and Employment Task Team (MIGDETT), with significant progress being attained to date. The President-led Framework Agreement for a Sustainable Mining Industry corroborates the significance attached to stabilising the mining industry and has borne fruit, with production of minerals in 2014 expected to be higher than the preceding year by about 6%.With a view to ensuring the sustainability of the industry now and in the future, the Departments of Mineral Resources and Environmental Affairs announced the introduction of a new system, on 8 December 2014, to further improve the competitiveness of South Africa’s mining sector. The One Environmental System, as it is known, is aimed at streamlining licensing processes of various authorities. It represents the government’s commitment to improving the ease of doing business, and further enhances South Africa’s global competitiveness as a mining investment destination.Relevant authorisations in respect of mining, environment and water use will now be issued within 300 days. If a decision is appealed, an additional 90 days will be granted to finalise the process. Environmental mineral resource inspectors, who have the same powers as environmental management inspectors to enforce the provisions of the National Environmental Management Act, have already been designated.Under the system, the minister of mineral resources is responsible for issuing environmental authorisations and waste management licenses for mining and related activities. At the same time, the environmental affairs minister is the appeal authority for these authorisations. This new system was pronounced by President Jacob Zuma in his State of Nation Address in February 2014.South Africa is becoming an economic force to be reckoned with in this rapidly changing global economic, mainly due to the long-term socioeconomic vision and the associated policy-making of its government.Its successes, in terms of its global perception and rankings in key influential indices, such as the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report, the World Bank Ease of Doing Business Index, the World Economic Forum Travel and Tourism Index, could set a benchmark for other mining jurisdictions to follow this global trailblazer.Team South Africa in DavosFollow Team South Africa at WEF Davos on @Brand_SA #SAinDavos or @Brand_SA #CompetitiveSA.
From Great Zimbabwe to Nubian pyramids along the Nile River, Africa, as the Cradle of Humankind, holds many of the world’s greatest archaeological treasures. Here are five of the most significant.Bete Giyorgis, part of the Lalibela Churches in Ethiopia, an early example of Christian architecture in Africa and are one of Africa’s most significant archaeological discoveries. (Image: Wikipedia)CD AndersonThe number of unearthed archaeological sites across Africa has given the world insights into the history of the continent and the world.From pyramids in the north, to cryptic stone cities and ancient civilisations further south, these sites offer many mysteries as they do answers. Lying untouched and hidden for thousands of years, they can sometimes provide us with some understanding of who we are, as Africans, today.The Stone Circles of Senegal and GambiaThe Senegambia Stone Circles are one of Africa’s most significant archaeological discoveries. (Image: Wikipedia)Spread across thousands of miles in Senegal and Gambia, these four large stone constructions also referred to as the Senegambian stone circles date back to 300 BC. Judging by the discovery of graves and evidence of communities, the construction of the site shows evidence of a prosperous and organised society based on the amount of labour required to build such structures.They consist of over 30,000 laterite stones, 17,000 monuments and 2,000 home sites.Experts believe that much like obelisks, the stones were arranged purposefully for either religious or communal reasons. Finding, transporting and shaping the laterite, it is understood, would have required some kind of understanding of geology and intricate tool work.At the largest of the sites, at Sine Ngayene, Senegal, evidence of iron smelting and quarries was unearthed. Layered evidence in the ground indicates a timeline of more than 700 years when communities lived, worked and worshipped in the area.Meroë, SudanThe ancient city of Meroë in Sudan dates back to 800 BC and is one of Africa’s most significant archaeological discoveries. (Image: Wikipedia)An ancient city of palaces, iron production and pyramids along the east bank of the Nile, Meroë dates back to 800 BC. Embracing sophisticated Egyptian culture and possessing fertile land and abundant iron deposits, the city became a prominent trading post, renowned as far as Rome, Greece and Persia.It is mentioned in the book of Genesis (by the name Aethiopia) as a prominent yet vulnerable centre of commerce. The city traded with the Roman Empire and, it has been suggested by archaeologists, even with early Indian and Chinese explorers. Residents even farmed elephants to be exported for foreign armies.Its vulnerability and prominence made it a regular target for marauding armies over seven centuries. Eventually losing its Egyptian influence and culture, Meroë developed its own language, religions and customs that were all lost to history when the city was finally destroyed in AD 330. It lay untouched and undiscovered until 1821, when archaeologists excavated the first of its 200 distinctive Nubian pyramids. The written language of Meroë remains one of the world’s greatest undeciphered languages.Great Zimbabwe Stone Houses, Masvingo, ZimbabweThe Great Zimbabwe Stone Houses date back 900 years and are one of Africa’s most significant archaeological discoveries. (Image: Wikipedia)Dating back almost a millennium, the three-compound stone construction covering 18,000 acres was built using a sophisticated form of stone masonry not found in the surrounding region at the time. The complex was home to 18,000 people and is believed to have taken 300 years to construct. Operating as a proto-city, Great Zimbabwe contains evidence of a monarchy, religion, commerce and mining.Mystery surrounds its decline, with some experts speculating that the rapid depletion of nearby gold mines may have been the ultimate cause. Great Zimbabwe is recognised as a Unesco World Heritage Site.The Lalibela Churches, EthiopiaThe Lalibela Churches in Ethiopia were an early example of Christian architecture in Africa and are one of Africa’s most significant archaeological discoveries. (Image: Wikipedia)Once considered one of the holiest places in Africa, the 11 Lalibela churches were built in the 12th century for the burgeoning popularity of Christendom in the region. Inspired by their connection to King Solomon, early African Christians, unable to make pilgrimages to Jerusalem, were able to travel here to pay homage. The design of the complex resembles parts of Jerusalem.The site consists of monolith churches of varying sizes, each carved out of volcanic basalt and intricately decorated with early Christian iconography. The largest of the churches, the impressive Bete Giyorgis (Church of Saint George), is considered to be the most finely executed and best preserved church in the world.While Lalibela was partially destroyed by Muslim armies in the 16th century, much of the site survived intact and has grown over the past 400 years to become a medium-sized town.Bakoni, South AfricaThe Bakoni Ruins in Mpumalanga, South Africa date back more than 200,000 years and are one of Africa’s most significant archaeological discoveries. (Image: Wikipedia)The Bakoni Ruins of Machadodorp, Mpumalanga, is one of the world’s greatest unsolved archaeological puzzles. Dating back more than 200,000 years, this “lost city of Africa” is a large collection of complex stone terraces with evidence of settlements, fields and roads, as well as signs of advanced technological and agricultural innovation that existed long before the arrival of Europeans in the region.Case in point is the site’s most prominent feature: Adam’s Calendar, a 30m stone circle with positioned monolith rocks within it. The monoliths are aligned to match the movement of the Orion’s Belt star formation, and are presumed to be an early indicator of charted time.Viewed from the air, the ruins create a vast design of mazes and passages intricately connected over hundreds of kilometres. Needless to say, archaeologists are bewildered by the site. One of its few provable theories is that the age of the ruins indicates that the ancient Bakoni people who built the complex settlement may have been around much earlier than first believed.The site, its age and designs, are however popular with so-called pseudo-archaeology theories, including the idea that it might have been constructed by an ancient alien civilisation.Whatever the theories, the Bakoni Ruins supplement the more provable theories surrounding the Cradle of Humankind in the North West province that the southern region of Africa was inhabited by early humans much earlier in prehistory than first thought.Sources: Wikipedia and other online sources.Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Many Ohioans choose to avoid the probate process by using a transfer on death designation. Since 2000, Ohio has permitted property owners to use transfer on death designations to transfer property upon the owner’s death. Since 2009, Ohio law has required property owners to make transfer on death designations by using an affidavit instead of a survivorship deed. Under a new Ohio law, transfer on death affidavits may automatically terminate after certain life events.The new changes took effect on December 13, 2016 when the Governor signed Senate Bill 232 into law. Under Senate Bill 232, a transfer on death designation made either by a deed or by an affidavit to an owner’s spouse terminates if the property owner obtains a divorce, dissolution, or annulment. The new law applies to new and pre-existing transfer on death designations.Because the law applies to pre-existing transfer on death designations, it may be a good time for property owners to revisit their estate plans. Property owners should be aware of the effect of divorce, dissolution, or annulment on their transfer on death designations.The Ohio Legislative Service Commission’s analysis of Senate Bill 232 is available at: https://www.legislature.ohio.gov/download?key=5461&format=pdfMore information on transfer on death designations is available from the Ohio State Bar Association at: https://www.ohiobar.org/ForPublic/Resources/LawYouCanUse/Pages/LawYouCanUse-195.aspxFor more from Hall click here.
There was a blog here a few months back about PDF/A, a version of Adobe’s PDF file format that is intended to be used for long-term document archival. AIIM recently updated their FAQ about PDF/A, and it provides good information.One interesting capability included as part of PDF/A (ISO 19005-1) is that it includes Adobe XMP Metadata. Adobe announced XMP in September, 2001 and currently Adobe uses the technology in all component products of their Adobe Create Suite. The concept of XMP is similar to how Microsoft Office products automatically capture and allow the assignment of metadata to files being authored. The basis for XMP is in the W3C’s Resource Description Framework (RDF). Metadata embedded directly into files allow files to be ‘self-describing’, and embedded metadata can help you easily file, locate, identify and distinguish between similarly named files.Automatic embedding of metadata into files by capture devices like scanners and digital cameras is fairly standard. Usually information like date/time, height, width and file format are saved. Cameras typically embed data according to the Exchangable Image File Format (EXIF), a format modeled after the tag structure of TIFF files. (The TIFF format was created by Aldus which was later acquired by Adobe Systems). EXIF tag data includes camera setting information like F-Stop, focal length and shutter speed. Some newer cameras are embedding GPS location information too.Beyond the automatically captured EXIF metadata, Adobe XMP also allows users to embed additional information like source, headline and instructions.The upside of being able to embed metadata in files is that it allows information like keywords, version information, captions, format information, creation and modification dates, and other file information to be tagged. For example, graphic files used on a web site might contain embedded copyright information and originating URL. And when used in conjunction with a workflow, the state of the document can be kept as part of the metadata that automatically flows alongs with the file, across networks and via email. This is interesting because a single file could be treated as a self-contained packet of workflow information where embedded metadata describes the state of the document within the workflow. Participation in a workflow could be then reduced to the capability of simply being able to read and update embedded file metadata.There are a lot of positives for using embedded metadata as a tool to assit workflow. But while embedded file metadata can enable more flexible workflow, letting files and documents flow into and out of the control of a central workflow system can make it more difficult to track the location and state of a task and also to validate metadata changes. The repository used with the workflow system would need to continually synchronize its metadata with the embedded file metadata. But the biggest problem is still the lack of adoption of XMP or other technologies for embedding file metadata by software application vendors, unless you’ve standardized on dealing only with PDF or other Adobe file formats.Using embedded file metadata also brings along with it additional security issues. Files containing embedded metadata when exported and destined for public consumption may need to be stripped of personal or confidential information stored as metadata.