© 2013 Phys.org (Phys.org) —Two planetary researches, one from Hampton University and the National Institute of Aerospace, the other from Louisiana State University, have published a paper in the journal Nature suggesting that for a period of time, the Earth was very similar to Jupiter’s moon Io—with heat from within being released through what are known as heat-pipes. The new theory by William Moore and Alexander Webb goes against the common consensus that the Earth transitioned directly from a planet with a hot molten liquid layer to one covered by tectonic plates. Credit: Nature Planetary scientists have been stumped in trying to figure out how a planet with a molten hot liquid surface could transition directly to one with tectonic plates—the only way that could happen would be if the planet cooled almost instantly. But all available evidence indicates it didn’t, so how did the tectonic plates come about? Moore and Webb suggest there was an intermediate stage—one where heat was allowed to escape from the interior of the planet through heat-pipes.In practical terms, heat pipes are soft material “holes” in a planet’s surface. Hot magma from below is pushed upwards through channels towards the surface where it flows out as lava allowing heat to escape into space. While very similar to volcanoes, they don’t necessarily erupt, they simply ooze. Jupiter’s moon Io is an excellent example of a body that oozes lava, with so many heat-pipes that its entire surface is covered by material constantly pushed up from below. The result is a constant turnover of surface material, mixing with that from below. Moore and Webb theorize that a very similar situation existed on Earth between the time the surface was hot molten liquid and the development of tectonic plates. They suggest the constant movement of material up though the heat-pipes led to a build-up on the surface. As the planet cooled over time, the material that was pushed up slowly hardened and became the tectonic plates. And because there was still a lot of heat in the core of the planet, fissures developed which caused the plates to break apart and to travel as they continue to do today.Moore and Webb point to ancient zircon and diamonds found on Earth to strengthen their theory—the rocks have been dated to the time period in question (roughly 3 to 4 billion years ago) and show the weathering that would have occurred had they been constantly churned by heat-pipe transport. More information: Heat-pipe Earth, Nature 501, 501–505 (26 September 2013) DOI: 10.1038/nature12473AbstractThe heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics. New model of Earth’s interior reveals clues to hotspot volcanoes Journal information: Nature Explore further Citation: Research duo suggest early Earth had heat-pipe channels similar to Jupiter’s moon Io (2013, September 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-09-duo-early-earth-heat-pipe-channels.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The event commenced with the lighting of the lamp, followed by prayers and the presentation by the students. The young actors confidently depicted various episodes of the epic Ramayana, such as the childhood of Ram, Sita Swayamvar, Hanuman setting Lanka on fire and then the victory of Ram over Ravana, with timely delivery of dialogues and perfect expressions. The enactment was complemented by the majestic grandeur of the life-like props, colorful costumes, jewellery and eye-catching decoration. The event culminated with a delightful Diwali dance by the students. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The Chief Guest , Sonia Chib, Vice Principal of The Sri Ram school Vasant Vihar, appreciated the hard work and patience of the teachers in putting together the great show. The director of Aadyant, Radha Mittal was delighted seeing the enthralling presentation by the tiny tots and said, ‘The confidence with which the children performed is commendable and, such a presentation is the medium to inculcate good values in our children.’ The Principal of Aadyant, Nidhi Mathur thanked the guests for encouraging the children. The evening ended on a festive note as everyone left with memories to cherish.
This collaborative showing is an eye opener into trends and facilities that are currently evolving at serious art gatherings, where this chosen handful has displayed their innovative interpretations earlier. Taking his sculptural explication of the kinetic force to the next notch, sculptor Ankit Patel uses a bicycle in motion to represent his concept of movement and energy. Titled Winner’s Pride, its strikes by its spruce linearity, rhythm of motion and exactitude of design repetition. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’A novel twist to a game of chess in the work titled Winner’s Pride, by artist Sanjay Srivastava, has the grip of aggressiveness shown in a fresh take by the pawn-like figures roofed under an inescapable pair of giant forms. The fierce spirit of competitiveness a characteristic outcome of the game, exploits the sport to provide the keynote for the artwork. The minutea of brass nails and chess pawns simulate the detached yet cumulative attitude of metropolitan living in the work by sculptor Ramesh Chandra Thorat. Known for his meditative stance in depicting evolutionary growth, his work exudes the contrast of the solidity of natural forces against the vulnerability of the human race in its surroundings. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe solidity of the form in the bronze work by artist Ratan Krishna Saha excites viewer interest through its focal imagery of a wheel in motion. Its compact contours and grounded format interpret the creative energies of the work into a forceful yet compassionate narrative.The only painter in the group Asit Patrnaik, is known for his graphic exactitude, granulated texturing of the backdrop and his deep understanding of the colour palette. In the work titled Thoughtscape, he practically entices the viewer to delve beyond the surface and come up with an understanding of the silent play of moods that the forms in the foreground seem to convey.The five-member consortium has offered a handpicked series of works that have gelled together through their artistic competence, their deep-seated interpretative energies and their expert execution. The exhibition is therefore a must-see for art lovers with a yen for the innovative and the competent. WHERE: Lalit Kala Akademi, Rabindra BhavanWHEN: On till 7 October, 11.00 am to 7.00 pm
Kolkata: After coming down heavily on BJP for omitting the names of 40 lakh people from the final draft of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Assam, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee has written a poem to express her solidarity with the helpless citizens who have fallen victims to the move.Banerjee had sent eight MLAs and MPs to meet the people on last Thursday. But the Assam government did not allow them to go out of the Silchar Airport by promulgating prohibitory order under Section 144 CrPC. Banerjee, who was in Delhi at the time, did not hide her feelings and on reaching Kolkata Airport last Friday, had told newsmen that “Super Emergency” was going on in the country. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeBanerjee, with a natural flair for poetry, has always believed that the pen is mightier than the sword and through her poem, has vehemently criticised the divisive and anti people policy of BJP.The arrogance of BJP leaders and their tendency to brand those who do not corroborate their views as “anti-national”, is the central theme of the poem. From the Prime Minister’s Mann Ki Baat to forcible introduction of Aadhar card, every aspect of BJP’s rule has appeared in the poem. She has also mentioned the “action” against the section of media which writes against the ruling party. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killed”Do you listen to Mann Ki Baat? Do you write against the ruler? Does your phone have Aadhar? Are you a member of the Pay B-Team? Have you registered all documents? Are you against the oppressor? Then there is no place for you. Then you are an extremist…” are a few lines from the Chief Minister’s poem.BJP’s divisive policy on the food habits and religion of citizens which have even led to the death of people in different parts in the country, has also been highlighted by Banerjee.”What kind of food do you take? Where all do you go? Do you belong to different religion? Are you a Dalit? Are you a Christian? Are you a minority? You don’t support Ravana? Then you go to solitude,” reads the poem.
With an array of seasonal vegetables and festive flavoured cuisine, Sorrento – Shangri-La Eros Hotel’s fine dining Italian restaurant is all set to enthrall foodies this winter. Winter Brunch and Bubbly at the restaurant has loads to offer to satiate your tummy over a leisurely brunch with your friends and family. The massive buffet spread would win anybody’s heart with the colourful display of all the salad ingredients, different cheeses and marinated olives, the mains laid out in large cooking pots, the fluffy sandwiches and inviting pizzas laid out on the station, and the unmistakable sweet aromatic dessert area. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfChoose from the wide range of tropical cheese and marinated olives, while you also pile up your plate with lip smacking shrimp salad, Caesar salad, goat cheese stuffed zucchini rolls, and Bruschettas – the winner of the range. As the goat cheese in the zucchini rolls melts in your mouth and you decide to grab some more, it is advisable to try out the bruschettas with your choice of topping. If you are looking for a variety of Italian delights, stick to the plan of trying every dish without binging onto any specific one. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveA favourite for chicken lovers would be the Chicken cacciatore, hot from the cooking pot. As you cut through the large and juicy chicken breast, you can inhale the olive oil, tomatoes, garlic and basil leaves which have been enriching the braised chicken, and the accompanied peppers. If grilled meat defines your idea of a perfect brunch, their medium grilled lamb chops and salmon steaks with potatoes, broccoli and baby carrots will win your heart right away. Hovering over to the main course, it is wise to stuff your face with their homemade pasta, pizzas and sandwiches, fresh off the oven. Linguine with baby spinach, chili, garlic and prawns can lighten up the mood of any prawn lover, as you swoop in the pasta and much on to the al-dente prawns enjoying the sea-salty flavoured combination. Unlike several food festivals and seasonal menus which lack options for vegetarians, Sorrento presents a healthy variety of options for their vegetarian patrons. The Eggplant parmigiana is one such vegetarian masterpiece. It is a unique Italian baked dish which provides a well-blended taste of eggplant, cheese and tomatoes. The swell of cheese on the baked eggplant and the thickened tomato sauce produces an overwhelming aroma igniting all your olfactory nerves. What happens to be a befuddling decision is to stand over the desserts table wondering how you can gorge on all the delicious looking pastries. With over 10 different types of desserts, sweet-tooths will have a tough time picking their favourite mouthfulls. The winter menu has the classic Tiramisu, strawberry panna cotta, Chocolate decadence, Cannoli. But the stars of the afters would be strawberries and rich Belgian chocolate, used generously in the cakes, puddings and tarts. The menu is balanced with an exciting selection of in-house beverages like Ti Amo Prosecco, Grappa’s Signature Negronis, Red/ White Wine Popsicles, and Aperol Spritzers. Celebrate this winter with the finest bubbly and widest brunch spread over some quality conversation with your loved ones.